• 确认过眼神 这只“美瞳大眼睛”是国家二级保护动物褐林鸮 2019-05-24
  • 回复@大雨582:你看咱帖子所涉及的知识面、逻辑、心态等,不是自由而全面发展的人可能有的么? 2019-05-24
  • 用当代中国马克思主义指导改革发展实践 2019-05-16
  • 梦幻!英国减压健身新趋势 当一条美人鱼 2019-05-09
  • 新生入学网上怎么报名 合肥教育局解答常见问题 2019-05-08
  • 重庆宣讲十九大:带着感情进村入户,真抓实干落地开花 2019-05-08
  • 左凌仁的专栏作者中国国家地理网 2019-05-02
  • 而其实,正所谓资本制度是资本人格化阶级主导一样,现在的人民也不是现成可用的概念,是要经过社会革命才成立的概念。 2019-04-25
  • 南京街头欢乐派对 “打Call”世界杯(组图) 2019-04-25
  • 打倒控房抄者有理,去分房好! 2019-04-17
  • 美食 谈资中国国家地理网 2019-04-16
  • 【理上网来·辉煌十九大】俄罗斯科学家:受到习主席接见印象深刻 2019-04-13
  • 回复@“老笑头”,批判了你的帖子,就是看不懂你的帖子吗?这就是你一贯自我吹嘘的所谓“逻辑”吗?你的这种所谓“逻辑”全论坛恐怕只有一个人会认同,那就是最近出... 2019-04-12
  • 回复@老老保老张工:麻烦去问一下度娘再来瞎扯…… 2019-04-06
  • 韩朝时隔10年重启高级别军事会谈 2019-04-06
  • 腾讯足球手游对战:Doctors eye deep brain stimulation to treat opioid addiction

    Patient Number One is a thin man, with a scabby face and bouncy knees. His head, shaved in preparation for surgery, is wrapped in a clean, white cloth.

    Years of drug use cost him his wife, his money and his self-respect, before landing him in this drab yellow room at a Shanghai hospital, facing the surgeon who in 72 hours will drill two small holes in his skull and feed electrodes deep into his brain.

    The hope is that technology will extinguish his addiction, quite literally, with the flip of a switch.

    The treatment — deep brain stimulation — has long been used for movement disorders like Parkinson's. Now, the first clinical trial of DBS for methamphetamine addiction is being conducted at Shanghai's Ruijin Hospital, along with parallel trials for opioid addiction. And this troubled man is the very first patient.

    FORMER US DRUG CZAR SAYS NATIONAL FOCUS ON OPIOID EPIDEMIC IS OVERLOOKING REAL CULPRIT

    The surgery involves implanting a device that acts as a kind of pacemaker for the brain, electrically stimulating targeted areas. While Western attempts to push forward with human trials of DBS for addiction have foundered, China is emerging as a hub for this research.

    Scientists in Europe have struggled to recruit patients for their DBS addiction studies, and complex ethical, social and scientific questions have made it hard to push forward with this kind of work in the United States, where the devices can cost $100,000 to implant.

    China has a long, if troubled, history of brain surgery for drug addiction. Even today, China's punitive anti-drug laws can force people into years of compulsory treatment, including "rehabilitation" through labor. It has a large patient population, government funding and ambitious medical device companies ready to pay for DBS research.

    There are eight registered DBS clinical trials for drug addiction being conducted in the world, according to a U.S. National Institutes of Health database. Six are in China.

    But the suffering wrought by the opioid epidemic may be changing the risk-reward calculus for doctors and regulators in the United States. Now, the experimental surgery Patient Number One is about to undergo is coming to America. In February, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration greenlighted a clinical trial in West Virginia of DBS for opioid addiction.

    ___

    HUMAN EXPERIMENTS

    Patient Number One insisted that only his surname, Yan, be published; he fears losing his job if he is identified.

    He said doctors told him the surgery wasn't risky. "But I still get nervous," he said. "It's my first time to go on the operating table."

    Three of Yan's friends introduced him to meth in a hotel room shortly after the birth of his son in 2011. They told him: Just do it once, you've had your kid, you won't have problems.

    Smoking made Yan feel faint and slightly unhinged. Later, he found meth brought crystalline focus to his mind, which he directed at one thing: Cards. Every time Yan smoked, he gambled. And every time he gambled, he lost — all told, around $150,000 since he started using drugs, he estimated.

    His wife divorced him. He rarely saw his son.

    WARREN UNVEILS $100 BILLION PLAN TO TACKLE OPIOID CRISIS

    Yan checked into a hospital for detox, moved to another town to get away from bad influences, took Chinese traditional medicine. But he relapsed every time. "My willpower is weak," he said.

    Last year his father, who had a friend who had undergone DBS surgery at Ruijin, gave him an ultimatum: Back to rehab or brain surgery. "Of course, I chose surgery," Yan said. "With surgery, I definitely have the chance to get my life back."

    Before there were brain implants in China there was brain lesioning. Desperate families of heroin users paid thousands of dollars for unproven and risky surgeries in which doctors destroyed small clumps of brain tissue. Brain lesioning quickly became a profit center at some hospitals, but it also left a trail of patients with mood disorders, lost memories and altered sex drives.

    In 2004, China's Ministry of Health ordered a halt to brain lesioning for addiction at most hospitals. Nine years later, doctors at a military hospital in Xi'an reported that roughly half of the 1,167 patients who had their brains lesioned stayed off drugs for at least five years.

    DBS builds on that history. But unlike lesioning, which irreversibly kills brain cells, the devices allow brain interventions that are — in theory — reversible. The technology has opened a fresh field of human experimentation globally.

    "As doctors we always need to think about the patients," said Dr. Sun Bomin, director of Ruijin Hospital's functional neurosurgery department. "They are human beings. You cannot say, 'Oh, we do not have any help, any treatment for you guys.'"

    Sun said he has served as a consultant for two Chinese companies that make deep brain stimulators — SceneRay Corp. and Beijing PINS Medical Co. He has tried to turn Ruijin into a center of DBS research, not just for addiction, but also Tourette syndrome, depression and anorexia.

    In China, DBS devices can cost less than $25,000. Many patients pay cash.

    "You can rest assured for the safety of this operation," Yan's surgeon, Dr. Li Dianyou, told him. "It is no problem. When it comes to effectiveness, you are not the first one, nor the last one. You can take it easy because we have done this a lot."

    In fact, there are risks. There is a small chance Yan could die of a brain hemorrhage. He could emerge with changes to his personality, seizures, or an infection. And in the end, he may go right back on drugs.

    ____

    A BUZZING DRILL

    Some critics believe this surgery should not be allowed.

    They argue that such human experiments are premature, and will not address the complex biological, social and psychological factors that drive addiction. Scientists don't fully understand how DBS works and there is still debate about where electrodes should be placed to treat addiction. There is also skepticism in the global scientific community about the general quality and ethical rigor — particularly around issues like informed consent — of clinical trials done in China.

    "It would be fantastic if there were something where we could flip a switch, but it's probably fanciful at this stage," said Adrian Carter, who heads the neuroscience and society group at Monash University in Melbourne. "There's a lot of risks that go with promoting that idea."

    The failure of two large-scale, U.S. clinical trials on DBS for depression around five years ago prompted soul-searching about what threshold of scientific understanding must be met in order to design effective, ethical experiments.

    "We've had a reset in the field," said Dr. Nader Pouratian, a neurosurgeon at UCLA who is investigating the use of DBS for chronic pain. He said it's "a perfectly appropriate time" to research DBS for drug addiction, but only "if we can move forward in ethical, well-informed, well-designed studies."

    In China, meanwhile, scientists are charging ahead.

    At 9 a.m. on a grey October Friday in Shanghai, Dr. Li drilled through Yan's skull and threaded two electrodes down to his nucleus accumbens, a small structure near the base of the forebrain that has been implicated in addiction.

    Yan was awake during the surgery. The buzzing of the drill made him tremble.

    At 4 p.m. the same day, Yan went under general anesthesia for a second surgery to implant a battery pack in his chest to power the electrodes in his skull.

    Three hours later, Yan still hadn't woken from the anesthesia. His father began weeping. His doctors wondered if drug abuse had somehow altered his sensitivity to anesthesia.

    Finally, after 10 hours, Yan opened his eyes.

    ___

    BODY COUNT

    According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 500,000 Americans died of drug overdoses in the decade ending in 2017 — increasingly, from synthetic opioids that come mainly from China, U.S. officials say. That's more than the number of U.S. soldiers who died in World War II and Vietnam combined.

    The body count has added urgency to efforts to find new, more effective treatments for addiction. While doctors in the U.S. are interested in using DBS for addiction, work funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health is still focused on experiments in animals, not people.

    At least two U.S. laboratories dropped clinical trials of DBS for treating alcoholism over concerns about study design and preliminary results that didn't seem to justify the risks, investigators who led the studies told The Associated Press.

    "The lack of scientific clarity, the important but strict regulatory regime, along with the high cost and risk of surgery make clinical trials of DBS for addiction in the U.S. difficult at the present time," said Dr. Emad Eskandar, the chairman of neurological surgery at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.

    China's studies have offered mixed results. Sun and his colleagues have published one case study, describing a patient who used heroin and fatally overdosed three months after getting DBS. But a separate pilot study published in January by doctors at a military hospital in Xi'an showed that five of eight heroin users stayed off drugs for two years after DBS surgery.

    Based on those results, SceneRay is seeking Chinese regulatory approval of its DBS device for opioid addiction, and funding a multi-site clinical trial targeting 60 participants. SceneRay chairman Ning Yihua said his application for a clinical trial in the U.S. was blocked by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    But in February, the FDA greenlighted a small, separate trial of DBS for opioid use disorder, said Dr. Ali Rezai, who is leading the study at the West Virginia University Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute. They hope to launch the trial in June, with funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    The FDA declined comment.

    "People are dying," Rezai said. "Their lives are devastated. It's a brain issue. We need to explore all options."

    ___

    'YOU CAME TOO LATE'

    Two unsteady days after Yan's surgery, doctors switched on his DBS device. As the electrodes activated, he felt a surge of excitement. The current running through his body kept him awake; he said he spent the whole night thinking about drugs.

    The next day, he sat across from Dr. Li, who used a tablet computer to remotely adjust the machine thrumming inside Yan's head.

    "Cheerful?" Li asked as the touched the controls on the tablet.

    CLICK HERE TO GET THE FOX NEWS APP

    "Yes," Yan answered.

    Li changed the settings. "Now?"

    "Agitated," Yan said. He felt heat in his chest, then a beating sensation, numbness and fatigue. Yan began to sweat.

    Li made a few more modifications. "Any feelings now?"

    "Pretty happy now," Yan said.

    He was in high spirits. "This machine is pretty magical. He adjusts it to make you happy and you're happy, to make you nervous and you're nervous," Yan said. "It controls your happiness, anger, grief and joy."

    Yan left the hospital the next morning.

    More than six months later, he said he's still off drugs. With sobriety, his skin cleared and he put on 20 pounds. When his friends got back in touch, he refused their drugs. He tried to rekindle his relationship with his ex-wife, but she was pregnant with her new husband's child.

    "The only shame is that you came too late," she told him.

    Sometimes, in his new life, he touches the hard cable in his neck that leads from the battery pack to the electrodes in his brain. And he wonders: What is the machine doing inside his head?

  • 确认过眼神 这只“美瞳大眼睛”是国家二级保护动物褐林鸮 2019-05-24
  • 回复@大雨582:你看咱帖子所涉及的知识面、逻辑、心态等,不是自由而全面发展的人可能有的么? 2019-05-24
  • 用当代中国马克思主义指导改革发展实践 2019-05-16
  • 梦幻!英国减压健身新趋势 当一条美人鱼 2019-05-09
  • 新生入学网上怎么报名 合肥教育局解答常见问题 2019-05-08
  • 重庆宣讲十九大:带着感情进村入户,真抓实干落地开花 2019-05-08
  • 左凌仁的专栏作者中国国家地理网 2019-05-02
  • 而其实,正所谓资本制度是资本人格化阶级主导一样,现在的人民也不是现成可用的概念,是要经过社会革命才成立的概念。 2019-04-25
  • 南京街头欢乐派对 “打Call”世界杯(组图) 2019-04-25
  • 打倒控房抄者有理,去分房好! 2019-04-17
  • 美食 谈资中国国家地理网 2019-04-16
  • 【理上网来·辉煌十九大】俄罗斯科学家:受到习主席接见印象深刻 2019-04-13
  • 回复@“老笑头”,批判了你的帖子,就是看不懂你的帖子吗?这就是你一贯自我吹嘘的所谓“逻辑”吗?你的这种所谓“逻辑”全论坛恐怕只有一个人会认同,那就是最近出... 2019-04-12
  • 回复@老老保老张工:麻烦去问一下度娘再来瞎扯…… 2019-04-06
  • 韩朝时隔10年重启高级别军事会谈 2019-04-06
  • 河北十一选五走势图 七乐彩和值走势图 浙江体彩6+1中奖规则 潮州福利彩票投注站 500彩票网买彩票 双色球规则 快乐8彩票投注软件 时时彩 秒速时时彩开奖 南国彩票论坛七星彩 286期福彩中心开机号 以下哪个是手机爱彩网的地址 时时彩开奖结果 云南时时彩走开奖走势图 pc28预测软件 福州体彩网点